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Tuesday, 11 June 2013

Kitchen or Pawon in Java Culture


In the life of the Javanese expression is known that there are three very important namely food, clothing, and shelter. That is, in human life requires Java three very important things are: clothing (clothing) to wrap the body in order to be protected from cold, heat, and for aesthetics, food (eating) is a food that must exist to be eaten as a condition for survival; and boards (home or Omah) as a shelter or place of residence. The three elements of culture (food, clothing, and shelter) is an important symbol in Javanese life. 
In Javanese culture there is the assumption that between the houses, land, and its inhabitants is an integral and inseparable. People feel at one with the house and land where he lived, at the same time feel at one with the village settlement. Such a feeling of unity that led to a sense of security and peace for the people who inhabit the house. With the existence of such feelings, then the house is an important part of human life. Because the kitchen is part of the house, by itself also has an integral relationship with the occupants of the house. 
For the Javanese, because the house is considered very important, then the spaces in the house arranged in such a way that there are parts that are open to outsiders or guests, and there are parts that are taboo or should be hidden from outsiders .
In this regard, the following article will focus yourself on one of the elements of Javanese culture, which is part of the board, or Omah (home) called Pawon or kitchen. Kitchen, or Pawon have the meanings and functions that are important in organizing the preparation of food needs, as well as storage, as well as other activities. 
The problem that arises is the extent to which human beings interpret Java and treat the kitchen, or Pawon to meet the needs of eating, drinking, and other needs. Along with the development of human life, the changing natural environment, and advances in technology, kitchen or Pawon have also developed the form, meaning and function.
The kitchen, in Javanese called Pawon, containing two senses: first, building a house that is reserved for cooking and, secondly, can be interpreted furnace. The word comes from the word Pawon awu basis which means ash, get the prefix and suffix of pa, which means place. Thus, Pawon (pa + awu + an), which means the place awu or ash. The reality is indeed so, the kitchen or Pawon indeed where ash (the waste wood burning / charcoal ditungku), so it is considered as a dirty place. The kitchen in the traditional life of the Javanese, is the ash, in sanasini visible hanging Sawang (soot) are black by the smoke of fire. Similarly, cooking equipment because of the soot-black color. Probably caused by circumstances like that (looks all black and dirty), then in the arrangement of a traditional Javanese house, the kitchen is generally located at the rear. 
Kitchen or Pawon as additional buildings, are not regarded as a principal or important buildings, and construction of the kitchen very simple. Therefore to make the kitchen is not required such complex requirements will make the main house which requires computation time (horoscope). In traditional Javanese life, eating is not getting much attention. In Book IV Wulangreh work Buwana Paku says' aja pijer manganese Nendra '(do not always eat and sleep), and' occupies the central place in the literature of Jawa3.
andangan Javanese someone pointed out that strength is not dependent on the quantity of food that enters the body, but the embroidery and inner. People are not going to be weak because his body just a bit to eat, even on the contrary, people will get a 'power' as they often carry out 'ngurang cut down on eating and sleeping (tirakat or ascetic).

Influenced by the philosophy of life that's so, then the composition of architecture Javanese house, kitchen or cooking Pawon and no special attention. However, in the mindset of the Javanese, eat interpreted to receive the blessings of Goddess Sri is regarded as a source of livelihood. Respect for Dewi Sri by the Javanese are not embodied solely in eating and cooking, but seriously handling the processing of agricultural land since the beginning to the postharvest.

Women and the Kitchen
In the traditional life of Java, the kitchen is the realm and authority of women. That's why the wife in the life of Javanese culture called kanca wingking (friends who are and / or working in the back). Rear here means in the kitchen. This term is considered degrading treatment of women, as if the authority of women only in the kitchen alone, no ability to perform in front.

That the kitchen is identical with and into the realm of women and authority of women, as reflected for example if a husband is often the kitchen there is presumption in Javanese culture that is considered less trusting husband wife in the kitchen or managing the household economy. Male or husband of such terms as kethuk or deride. So the kitchen is the world of women, and as a special identification feature, the kitchen in the life of Javanese traditional emphasis on Kendhil and smoke. This is confirmed by the existence of folklore Jake Tarub. This story symbolizes how the role of women in the kitchen, and can be interpreted against any husband should believe that a wife in relation to the kitchen.

In accordance with the position of women in the kitchen and women's relationship with the kitchen, the kitchen was in the making there perhitunganperhitungan traditionally associated with women. According Koentjaraningrat, there is confidence in the Javanese that the kitchen is the weakest part of the house because the kitchen is the place of women, and women were considered the weakest creature called Liyu. The meaning of the word Liyu, in Javanese-Indonesian dictionary (10), can be interpreted tired or fatigued. From the meaning of this word can be defined that work in the kitchen will be accomplished / tired.

In making the kitchen or Pawon anyone still using Java perhitunganperhitungan. For example, because the kitchen is considered as a woman's place is to build a kitchen should be started when Neptune nyaine (born wife of the market day), for example Monday Pon, Tuesday Wage and so forth. In order to use the kitchen given a safety, there also are using the calculation of fall arrive lara (arrived = fall, lara = dead), so the kitchen or Pawon interpreted as
where things die, or place of discharge.

In the study of traditional housing, creation of Java, there is a kitchen that starts with the calculation of the fall in order Liyu which means granary. As it is known that the barn is where the food supply, while Pawon or kitchen is a place of processing or cooking. So the calculation is expected to fall in order Liyu, so Pawon or kitchen never stops or runs out of food. But generally adopted is to avoid the day geblag (death day), close relatives such as parents, spouses, or children.

Pawon and Kitchen Appliances
Traditional kitchen or Pawon is inseparable with the equipment used in the kitchen, that is a traditional furnace that has a variety of local designation of which Pawon, cool, dhingkel, luweng, or brazier. Furnaces called dhingkel made of hollow bricks which one or completely open. Other forms such as dhingkel is called luweng, but luweng longer and has a hole three to four and there is a designation for each piece of work called cangkem luweng eg where to enter firewood, perforation luweng or slowongan to put the cookware, dhingkel tumang or lips, and lawih as a crutch (ganjel) placed on the lips. Other furnace equipment which is generally used by most residents in rural areas is cool. Furnace cool tool called also have parts that function that is cangkem cool to put the fuel, and at the top of the perforation cool to put cooking utensils. Both dhingkel, luweng, and cool use of fuel wood, sepet, bamboo, or dry waste.

Other furnaces are also still used brazier, which fuel to use charcoal. Anglo also has sections that each has a different function that is Sarangan to place charcoal brazier, brazier cangkem (mouth brazier) is where we wag fan for a larger flame. Other equipment that is now already widely used is the stove. In the traditional kitchen cooking equipment which is generally used is the equipment made of clay and bamboo matting. Clay cooking utensils such as pots, Pengaron, Kendhil or jemblukan, cowek, kekep, Genthong. In addition to the equipment of clay are also many who use the tools of copper, iron, aluminum, zinc, such as cormorant, kenceng, pans, kettle, kettle, pot. Other equipment is made of woven bamboo steamer, salary, if, cething, Sandpipers basket, winnowing, and from coconut shell selon example Irus, enthong, siwur; equipment from wood for example munthu, grated, enthong, gledheg or grobog. A place to store kitchen utensils are generally placed on a wooden rack, or shelf bamboo, or something called paga,
bethekan or pranjen.

Viewed from the furnace equipment that is dhingkel, luweng, cool, and furniture Pawon mostly made of clay, woven bamboo, as well as a place to store the equipment, almost all of them by exploiting bahanbahan contained in the environment.

By the passage of time, as well as the development of technology, Pawon or kitchen may experience physical changes as well as its content as in town. Thus Pawon understanding, meaning and function will also experience a shift. If that happens then the function and meaning of philosophy Pawon will be separated from the Javanese way of life

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